In this guideline we present five methodological procedures, a roadmap on how to use them in combination, and a way to check for influences of censorship and propaganda.Next
As an example of the proposed procedures, we examine the cross-cultural expression of religion via religious terms for the years 1900 to 2000.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46 7 , 930—941. The graphs highlight a drop around the 1920s, followed by rather flat movement until the 1990s, where the frequencies start to rise again.Next
By themselves, z-scoring and normalizing by a common word either account for unequal weights or data-related trends, respectively.
If we were using N-Grams for more than just a demonstration, we would want to do a lot more research and thinking about both language and history.Next
Psychological Science, 24 9 , 1722—1731.
The results reinforce the significant negative trend for German terms over time suggesting that prior results were affected by the set of original words.Next
The findings suggest that religion became less important over time but showed more prevalence during a time of existential crisis see Figures A-H in for visual inspection.
More on those under. Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960—2008.Next
In accordance with this notion, we let our synonyms rate by two native speakers per language on a scale of 0 no synonym to 10 perfect synonym.
The Psychological Record, 65 1 , 23—30. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61 4 , 461—480.
In particular, we recommend subtracting the summed z-scored frequencies of various very common words obtained from Lin et al.
Transition to market economy promotes individualistic values: Analysing changes in frequencies of Russian words from 1980 to 2008.Next
Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12 2 , 258—269.
Method and results This section describes how to conduct a Google Ngram study. For example, by focusing on raw frequencies or by applying a standardization procedure that only accounts for the influx of data over time, we obtain a significant negative trend for Italian religious terms see , Model I and III. That is where we step in.Next
To be able to derive assumptions from language- to country-level, we focus primarily on American and British English, German, and Italian, but consider multinational languages like Spanish and French to verify the general validity of our findings.